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Your Questions About How To Discover New Antibiotics

Mary asks…

How can I wash a gerbil with mite shampoo without getting it in his eyes?

My gerbil has been very poorly. He lost all his fur and the vets I was going to couldn’t work out what was wrong with him and kept plying him with antibiotics. It got so bad that he had no fur left and just sat in the corner of his cage shaking. I changed vets and the new vet took a skin sample and discovered that he had mites. I was given a solution to wash him in which has worked wonders. His fur started growing back and he became much more lively. I was advised to wash him less frequently but since then he has started losing his fur all over again. So I decided to start washing him more again. The only problem is he is a lot more lively now he has recovered and where it used to be very easy to wash him because he would sit still, he now runs and wriggles around a lot more and I have got it in his eyes on two occassions now which makes him screw up his eyes for a few days. I need to wash him again tonight and I’m worried about getting it in his eyes again. Can anyone suggest any safe tips to help prevent this happening?

For you info, this is how I was advised by the vet to wash him.
I use gloves, put the solution in a syringe, hold the gerbil gently and squeeze the solution over his back (not face), massage in gently, and then tip a small cup of warm water over his back, (this is the bit he hates and that makes him wriggle and when it goes in his eyes).

New Niche Finder answers:


First of all, can I just say this question absolutley warmed my heart. It’s lovely to see how well you are obviously looking after your gerbil and how much you obviously care about him – it’s lovely :)

Okay… When i washed my rat with mite stuff I also got it into their eyes and they would scrunch it up for a few days, too, so I know the feeling.
So what I did when I tipped the water over him is I held him by his front with my hand and stood him up (so he was slightly leant forward) and I then poured the water over him really quickly so by the time he noticed I was doing it, he didn’t have a chance to wiggle free.

All in all, hold him by his front if you can, slightly leaning him forward (so the water won’t run down to the front of his eyes even if he wiggles, it’ll just roll down his back) – hold him firmly and get it all done really quickly so he hasn’t got the chance to wiggle, then, after it’s all done, give him his favourite treat so he starts to associate the experience with something good, not just negative memories. :)

I hope I helped!

Robert asks…

Why is Science Wrong so often?

Bearing in mind that, in historical terms, it is only a short time ago that the most intelligent scientific minds firmly believed that the Universe revolved around the Earth. Also that the deciphering of the Human Genome was the final definitive step in human science – but has now been show to be just another skin of the onion.
It is not long ago that Science was investigating entropy and predicting the Heat Death of the Universe, That soon glaciers could be expected to advance over Regents Park London.
Recently Medical Science predicted that — using antibiotics — Gonorrhoea, Tuberculosis and many other plagues would be erased forever. Dr Ken Harvey, director of. Microbiology at the Royal Melbourne Hospital in Australia, where a particularly virulent strain of MRSA bacteria swept through the wards, said recently: ‘We may, look back at the antibiotic era as just a passing. phase in the history of medicine, an era in which a great, natural resource was squandered and where the bugs proved smarter than the scientists. He is especially critical of ‘doctors who constantly use broad-spectrum antibiotics an indiscriminate drug which kills a wide range of bugs in circumstances where they are unnecessary. ” Broad spectrum, antibiotics are the refuge of the diagnostically ‘destitute”. he said.
Vaccination was to protect the young — but has now been shown to be responsible for many types of Autism — due to the Mercury included in many vaccines. A parent who said he believes his two autistic children were harmed by vaccines applauded Congress for requesting a new investigation. The parent, Jared Hansen of Framingham, said he thinks the CDC is reluctant to expose dangers of thimerosal because the agency is responsible for ensuring public acceptance of its vaccination program.

“They’ve proven far more willing to overstate the risks of disease and understate the danger of vaccination,” Hansen said. “No one in their right mind can say that giving mercury intravenously is a smart thing to do.”

Autism rates soared during the 1990s when thimerosal was most heavily used in childhood vaccines. Levels of mercury injected into infants were 120 times greater than federal safety limits for oral ingestion of mercury, congressmen wrote to the NIEHS.

Government officials asked manufacturers in 1999 to remove the mercury-based preservative from vaccines, but it is still used in flu and tetanus shots.

It has long been known that efforts to infect rats with Syphilis is useless. Now we have a Supermouse that simply kills off any attempts to inject it with Cancer. Its immune system is highly effective.
In view of the item on the Heat Death of the Universe , why are we now involved in a panic about Global Warming?. The “hole” in the atmosphere, supposedly getting bigger due to Refrigerator Gas , was only recently discovered . We have NO records of its expansion and contraction over some centuries , so how can we predict anything!.
Considering these few items ,culled at random , its is obvious that at any given moment Science is just a “ragbag” of postulates firmly based in a sea of sand.
Why then are scientists so well paid when Astrology is probably more firmly based than Astronomy — and what exactly – is a Black Hole , the “Superstrings” that wander through our universe as if it were a Ghost , a Phantasm.

New Niche Finder answers:

1) Because modern science is political, it is funded by people and organizations with an agenda.

2) Because it has become socially necessary for scientists to publish “new findings” in order to appear successful. So things are rushed.

3) Because science has largely become a “religion” based on “faith.” If anyone challenges the commonly accepted theories (global warming, evolution, linear nature of time) they are black-balled and their research and evidence is ignored.

In short, science has lost its objectivity.

David asks…

How can I help calm my cat?

My cat has had a rough week and I’m noticing it starting to wear on her. She was having issues going to the bathroom. She went to the vet and they did a urinalysis and she was discovered to have crystals in her urine. She was given antibiotics and a blood test. Her blood test was normal and she was put on special diet for crystals in her urine.

I’ve started feeding her the new food. I’ve mixed 75% of her old food with 25% of her new. I know you increase the amount of new food over the day. She is not happy about her new food and basically picks out the old food and leaves the new. She’s getting stressed out when I have to give her antibiotics (she has to be on it for another week and half). She spits some of it out and runs and hides. She runs away from me now when she normally wouldn’t ever. I know the adjustment in her food, the vet trips, and the medication has stressed her out. I feel absolutely terrible, but I have to continue with everything for her own health.

Can anyone give me some tips on how I can make this time less stressful for her?
Sorry, I didn’t increase the amount over the day. I mean over a few days.

New Niche Finder answers:

“increase the amount of new food over the day” — no, that’s wrong. It takes about 2 weeks to change foods. You feed the same %s of old to new, like you’re doing, but leave it for several days (say 3), then increase the %new, until it’s all new.
I’ve always mixed foods with my cats (about 3-4 different brands and flavors) so they are used to that. I don’t think I would ever have a problem getting them to eat something new, because they eat a new combo of foods every time the bowls get empty.

As for giving liquid ABT, I’ve never met a cat that took to that (and I have 4!)… Best bet is have it on you but pick kitty up without her seeing it. Give her some loving and help her relax. This gives her time to destress before she has to get meds. With a syringe, put it in the corner of her mouth (use 1 hand to hold her head) and give her just a little (0.5cc MAX) at a time. Giving too much at once makes kitty choke, and more able to just spit it all out. I really had fun in Oct. When I had to give oral ABT AND eyedrops to the same cat! Now that was no fun at all! :)
During the day when meds are not due, make sure to pick kitty up and give love. This way kitty knows that getting picked up does not mean medicine. She needs to be able to trust you. If kitty says, “put me down”, put her down. This helps her trust you again.

Also, maybe a Feliway diffuser would help. It’s marking pheremone and calming to cats. Helps them in all types of stress. Diffusers are expensive but they work for 30 days.

Good luck, hope kitty feels better! :)

Lisa asks…

Can God bring people back to perfect health again….?


How easy will it be for God to bring humans to perfect health once more?

Bacteria living inside a bryozoan, a moss-like marine animal, are the source of bryostatins, a new family of anticancer drugs now in clinical trials for humans. Dr. Margo Haygood, with support from California Sea Grant, identified the genes that code for the production of bryostatins and then showed that these genes are expressed in the bacterium Candidatus Endobugula sertula ( E. sertula). Before this, researchers had thought the source of bryostatins was the bryozoan itself.

Antibiotics from Squid Eggs?

To protect their eggs from fungi, bacteria, and parasites during incubation, female squid coat their eggs with a paste made up of a dense bacterial community. Marine biology professor Dr. David Epel of Stanford University has been investigating the antimicrobial properties of the squid’s secretions in the hopes that the bacteria will lead to new pharmaceuticals.

Dr. Epel and his team, supported by California Sea Grant, have discovered two previously unknown types of bacteria from the California market squid’s eggs and it accessory reproductive glands. Using a new molecular technique, Epel and postdoctoral researcher Dr. Todd Ciche next identified eight more species of bacteria on the egg sheath. Cultures of the bacteria revealed that only one of the species produced antibacterial compounds. Epel and Ciche hypothesize that the bacteria work in concert, communicating through chemical signals, to produce antibiotic and anti-fungal compounds. Their future work will focus on isolating and describing the antibiotics present in the egg coatings.

Perfection was lost due to sin. When Gods Kingdom soon puts an end to all other kingdoms there will be no more disease.

New Niche Finder answers:

Men try their best to cure diseases but then they are only men. They do not have the power to eliminate diseases completely. “Through one man [Adam, the first human] sin entered into the world and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men.” (Romans 5:12) So the Scriptures convict Adam of having wrecked our heritage
He (God) will wipe out every tear from their eyes, and death will be no more, neither will mourning nor outcry nor pain be anymore. The former things have passed away.”—Revelation 21:4.

Under the rulership of the Messianic Kingdom, humans will experience a great physical healing along with their spiritual healing. (Revelation 21:3, 4) Shortly after the destruction of Satan’s system of things, miracles like those that Jesus performed while on earth will no doubt take place on a global scale. The blind will see, the deaf will hear, the lame will walk! (Isaiah 35:5, 6)

“No resident will say: ‘I am sick.’”—Isaiah 33:24.

(Daniel 2:44) “And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be brought to ruin. And the kingdom itself will not be passed on to any other people. It will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, and it itself will stand to times indefinite;

Where is the Kingdom located? “My kingdom is no part of this world,” Jesus said to the Roman ruler Pontius Pilate. (John 18:36) God’s Kingdom under Christ will not rule through human agencies. Jesus repeatedly referred to the Kingdom of God as “the kingdom of the heavens.” (Matthew 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19, 20) God’s Kingdom, therefore, is a heavenly government.

What does the Kingdom accomplish? Jesus taught his listeners to pray to God: “Let your kingdom come. Let your will take place, as in heaven, also upon earth.” (Matthew 6:9, 10) God’s will is being done in heaven. The Kingdom is the means by which God’s purpose for the earth is carried out. To accomplish that, the Kingdom will effect dramatic changes on this earth.

What will the Kingdom do on earth? Jesus taught that God’s Kingdom will eliminate evil by removing those who are bent on practicing it. (Matthew 25:31-34, 46) That will mean the end of all forms of corruption and wickedness. The earth, Jesus taught, will be filled with people who are “mild-tempered,” righteous, merciful, “pure in heart,” and peaceable.—Matthew 5:5-9. God’s Kingdom will transform this earth into a global paradise—similar to the one that existed in the garden of Eden.
Jesus did more than promise what God’s Kingdom will do. He also showed what it will do. Jesus performed many miraculous healings while on earth, thus demonstrating on a small scale what he will do on a far greater scale in the future during his Kingdom rule.

When will God’s Kingdom come? Jesus taught that the start of his kingly rule would coincide with a marked period of time that he called his “presence.” Jesus gave a detailed prophecy to indicate when his presence in kingly power would begin. This time period would be marked by global troubles, including wars, famines, earthquakes, pestilences, and an increasing of lawlessness. (Matthew 24:3, 7-12; Luke 21:10, 11) These and the many other features Jesus foretold have been particularly evident since 1914, the year when World War I broke out. Hence, Jesus is now ruling as King. Soon the time will arrive for the Kingdom to come and cause God’s will to be done on earth.

Helen asks…

Biology Exam Question! Help me please…?

Multiple Choice

19) Dr. Daedalus at BetaLinkage Incorporated has just invented a new poison for killing termites and its chief ingredient is an antibiotic. How do the termites die?
A)They starve to death
B)They suffocate
C)They hemorrhage
D)They develop acute uromysitisis and explode as they fill with their own waste product

20) In response to changes in temperature most plant species
A) Thermoregulate by modifying their core temperature
B) Modulate the fluidity of their membranes by changing the saturation of lipids
C) Produce more cholesterol
D) Produce less cholesterol

21) After exposing E. coli bacteria to elevated temperature Dr. D. Nature notices a protein, that was at low concentration prior to the heat shock, is now present in the bacterial cytoplasm in a large amount.
This protein is likely:
A) a chaperonin
B) an annexin
C) an actin
D) tubulin

22) ) The Smuggerybodkins, a strange and unfriendly race of bloboforms, are incapable of making lipids and hence have no fat. However, they are as corpulent as hippopotami and are constantly drinking water. Hence, their girth is itself better described as a very large water balloon. They are active, manic actually, and thus must be able to store energy. This energy storage like take the form of:
A) Monosaccharides
B) Proteins
C) Nucleic Acids
D) Precipitated polysaccharides (insoluble aggregates)

23) An experiment: a fluorescent protein is added to a highly concentrated solution of the same protein along with GTP. The fluorescent protein seems to move through a filament like structure formed when GTP is added. It enters the filament at one end and exits at the other. The fluorescent protein is not a motor protein. What could be responsible for this apparent motion?
A) Denaturation
B) Refolding
C) Dynamic instability
D) Treadmilling

24) An experiment: Scientists working at Brefeldin College discover a drug which causes a fluorescently labeled Golgi to disappear in a cell to which the drug is applied. While the Golgi seems to have disappeared the fluorescent proteins and membrane seem now to be in the ER. What is the likely explanation
A) The cell quit making Golgi and the fluorescent proteins are an artifact
B) There are two pathways: one which moves membrane from ER to Golgi and a
retrograde pathway that moves membrane from Golgi to the ER. The drug
blocks forward movement (out of the ER) but not the retrograde pathway
C) The drug effects peripheral membrane proteins and causes them to stick to the
ER membrane rather than Golgi
D) No such drug exists and this is a ridiculous idea and experiment

25) One way to test the idea that the lumens of the endomembrane system are spatially the same as each other and/or the extracellular space would be to:
A) Fill the cytoplasm with a fluorescent dye and see if it was always excluded
from the lumens of the endomembrane system
B) Fill the lumen of the ER with a fluorescent dye and see if it ever leaked into
the cytoplasm
C) Fill the lumen of the ER with a fluorescent dye and see if it accumulates
outside of the cell
D) All of the above

New Niche Finder answers:

Rachana, could you possibly answer the other questions also??? We are all stuck unfortunately :-( I read the whole book and it barely gave me like 8 answers

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