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Your Questions About How To Discover New Elements

James asks…

how was the element platinum discovered?

i can’t really find much about it on the internet.. i just need to find out like.. the circumstances under which it was discovered

New Niche Finder answers:

From Weeks, M. E. (1968). Discovery of the Elements, 7, Journal of Chemical Education, pp 385–407. —

“In 1741, Charles Wood, a British metallurgist, found various samples of Columbian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation. Antonio de Ulloa, also credited with the discovery of platinum, returned to Spain from the French Geodesic Mission in 1746. His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable. Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in 1748, Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal. In 1758, he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica.

In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, mentioning that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals. Brownrigg also made note of platinum’s extremely high melting point and refractoriness toward borax. Other chemists across Europe soon began studying platinum, including Torbern Bergman, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, William Lewis, and Pierre Macquer. In 1752, Henric Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as “white gold”, including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic. Scheffer describing platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion.

Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in 1772. He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in aqua regia, precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride, igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely-divided platinum to make it cohere. Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in 1784. He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

In 1786, Charles III of Spain provided a library and laboratory to Pierre-François Chabaneau to aid in his research of platinum. Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe that he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum group metals. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot. Chabeneau realized that the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. This started what is known as the “platinum age” in Spain.”

Maria asks…

Who Discovered Oxygen the 8th element on the periodic table?

How did it start?
What is the History of Oxygen?
Properties of Oxygen?
How is it used?
How does it relate to biology?

New Niche Finder answers:

Oxygen was discovered for the first time by a Swedish Chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1772. Joseph Priestly, an English chemist, independently, discovered oxygen in 1774 and published his findings the same year, three years before Scheele published. Antonie Lavoisier, a French chemist, also discovered oxygen in 1775, was the first to recognize it as an element, and coined its name “oxygen” – which comes from a Greek word that means “acid-former”.

There is a historic dispute about who discovered oxygen. Most credit Priestly alone or Both Priestly and Scheele.

Properties of Oxygen:-Oxygen gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The liquid and solid forms are a pale blue color and are strongly paramagnetic. Oxygen supports combustion, combines with most elements, and is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds. Ozone (O3), a highly active compound with a name derived from the Greek word for ‘I smell’, is formed by the action of an electrical discharge or ultraviolet light on oxygen.

Uses of oxygen:- Oxygen was the atomic weight standard of comparison for the other elements until 1961 when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted carbon 12 as the new basis. It is the third most abundant element found in the sun and the earth, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle. Excited oxygen yields the bright red and yellow-green colors of the Aurora. Oxygen enrichment of steel blast furnaces accounts for the greatest use of the gas. Large quantities are used in making synthesis gas for ammonia, methanol, and ethylene oxide. It is also used as a bleach, for oxidizing oils, for oxy-acetylene welding, and for determining carbon content of steel and organic compounds. Plants and animals require oxygen for respiration. Hospitals frequently prescribe oxygen for patients. Approximately two thirds of the human body and nine tenths of the mass of water is oxygen.

It is related to biology as well as chemistry in biology it is related because the human body needs oxygen for respiration. They need oxygen for some function in the human body. Therefore oxygen is related to biology

William asks…

Are all of the possible transuranium elements discovered?

I also have other questions.

1.Is mass number and atomic number conserved in all nuclear reactions?

True or False
2.Radioisotopes with very long half-lives are seldom found in Earth’s crust.
3.All nuclear reactions involve some type of nuclear transmutation.

New Niche Finder answers:

No, not all the possible transuranium elements have been discovered. Within the past 10 years the elements Copernicium and Darmstadtium and Roentgenium were named with more heavier elements in the pipeline.

The total number of nucleons (neutrons plus protons) is conserved in all nuclear reactions.

True, radioisotopes with very long half-lives are commonly found in the Earth’s crust. We call them thorium and uranium.

No, not all nuclear reactions involve nuclear transmutation. Nuclear transmutation is when an element changes from one kind to another. For most nuclear decays, one or more protons is lost from the nucleus which changes the isotope to another element. The only exception is for those few isotopes which undergo neutron decay like Californium-252.

Laura asks…

Have scientists discovered all naturally occurring elements? What about synthetic elements?

New Niche Finder answers:

In all likelihood, all naturally-occurring elements have been discovered. The synthetic elements that are being made are all radioactive with short half lives, and would not exist in nature for very long if they were ever created (they may exist in the immediate aftermath of supernovae). As for synthetic elements, there are almost certainly many more to be discovered.

The other answerer’s reasoning about there being other galaxies doesn’t really work. As far as we know, atoms composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons – the elements found on Earth – should have the same properties regardless of location. That’s not to say that other forms of matter or antimatter don’t exist in other galaxies, just that other elements probably don’t.

Mark asks…

what the diffrence between discovered and created elements?

New Niche Finder answers:

Discovered elements are typically those which are present in nature, without the intervention of men. Created elements are those which have been artificially synthesized by scientists in laboratories like the hadron collider and the atom smasher.

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